Circuit system Description
Tamura offers multiple current sensor options to meet application requirements: Open Loop or Linear type (magnetic proportionality); Closed Loop or Servo-type (magnetic balance); Flux-Gate (magnetic equilibrium).
L＊＊Series(＊＊ is Number)
If the current is applied to the cable, the magnetic field proportional to the current in surroundings of the cable is generated on Ampere’s rule. The magnetic core is set in surroundings of the cable to improve the sensitivity. The Magnetic field is converted into the voltage by the linear type – hall element is placed in the gap of the magnetic core. But the output voltage of hall element is several tens of milli-volt, It enlarges it to the output voltage of the product specification (several volts) by the operational amplifier.
The sensor output voltage is linearly proportional to the magnetic flux generated by the measured current. In general, the open loop sensor is voltage output. The characteristic (accuracy, linearity, response, temperature property, and high-frequency current*1, etc.) of the current sensor is not a little better than that of other circuit methods because of the difference of the circuit configuration (magnetic circuit , magnetism-electric conversion and amplification of electrical circuit). However, the size can be reduced and it is lower -cost more than other circuit methods.
*1- We use silicon steel and permalloy in internal magnetic core of the open-loop sensors in order to improve the measurement possible current and hysteresis error. Therefore, at the frequency of the applied current exceeds more than several KHz, there is a possibility that the internal circuit may be damaged by the heat generation of the core loss.
S＊＊Series(＊＊ is Number)
The closed loop type current sensor measures the applied current on the condition that the magnetic flux density in the magnetic core is extremely zero. Therefore, there is no influence on accuracy by the non-linearity and hysteresis in the core because the flux density in the magnetic core operates in the starting point of the B-H curve in the operation region*1. The characteristic of the closed loop type is better than the open loop type current sensor. The addition of a secondary winding (1000-5000 turns) on the magnetic core allows feedback current to be supplied in opposition to measured current to compensate or cancel the magnetic flux generated by the measured current. The output of the closed loop sensor is a current output proportional to the measured current divided by the number of secondary winding turns*2.
*1-At the high-frequency current (1-2kHz or more) and the pulse current, current sensor should operate at ACCT (transformer) because the loop gain of the feedback control decreases. Under such a condition, the magnetic flux in the magnetic core is generated .
*2-Output current = (Primary current ) / (Secondary winding turns)
F＊＊Series(＊＊ is Number)
The flux-gate current sensor replaces the Hall element with probe coil made of highly saturable material. The magnetic offset of the probe coil does not occur in order to be driven by high-frequency current. The flux-gate utilizes a magnetic balance system to achieve high accuracy, temperature stable current output typically converted to a voltage output with an internal high precision resistor.